Diabetes Type 2 : Causes, Symptoms, Tests, Normal Values, Treatment and Prevention
What is Diabetes Type 2? How is Diabetes Characterized? What are the causes for Diabetes?
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of the body characterized by high glucose levels in the blood stream due to defective functioning of pancreas producing less quantities of the hormone ‘Insulin’ required for burning of glucose in the body.
The other common cause for high glucose levels in the body is in capacity of the insulin (Reduced insulin sensitivity) to burn the glucose resulting in accumulation of glucose in the blood stream (Type 2 Diabetes).
Common Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:
- Frequent urination.
- Increased hunger.
- Weight loss.
- Unexplained stress.
- Slow healing of wounds.
- Tingling sensation in palms and feet.
- Urinary tract infections (UTI).
- Fungal infections of vagina and external genital organs
Common tests employed for diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes:
Glucose tolerance test:
This is a common test employed for pregnant women to study the blood glucose levels and utilization of glucose in the body. The test consists of drawing on empty stomach once and then after giving orally 75-100gms of glucose and testing again after one hour. This test investigates the capacity of the body to utilize the glucose.
Normal result: 200 mg/dl after two hours of 75 grams of oral glucose.
Fasting blood sugar levels: Blood is drawn on empty stomach and tested for blood levels of glucose.
Normal value: 126mg/dl
Random blood sugar levels: Blood can be drawn at ant time and tested. Blood levels of glucose randomly are tested. Normal value is 200mg/dl.
Haemoglobin A1C tests:
The test measures how much glucose is available in the red blood cells in the body.
Normal value: 4-6%
Treatment options and prevention for diabetes type 2
- Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease without a radical cure.
- Oral medications are favorable to keep it under control.
- Controlling of blood pressure is important. Frequent check up of blood pressure is needed.
- Care should be exercised to prevent from injuries.
- Follow a strict regimen of exercise.
- Control diet.
- Reduce intake of carbohydrates.