Diabetes and Hypoglycemia : Symptoms, Treatment and Management

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which glucose level in the blood remains higher than the normal.

How do you know your glucose levels?

There are simple tests for detection of diabetes

  • Urine test
  • Blood test
Testing the blood glucose level yourself Neder...

Testing the blood glucose level yourself 

What are the normal values of blood sugar?

Non diabetic: When fasting the blood sugar level should be less than 100mg/dl. The blood sugar level after 2 hours of having meals should be less than 140mg/dl

Diabetic: When fasting the blood glucose will be greater than 126mg/dl. After 2 hours of having meal the blood sugar level will be greater than 200mg/dl.

Who are at risk of diabetes?

People who

  • Have family history of diabetes
  • Are obese
  • Are over 35 years of age
  • Are overweight
  • Do not perform any physical activity

Symptoms of diabetes:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Irritability
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Tingling or numbness in feet
  • Delayed healing of wounds

Will a diabetic have all these symptoms?

  • The patient may have one or more of the symptoms.
  • Even in the absence of any symptoms those who are at risk of diabetes must undergo regular checkup.

What if the symptoms of diabetes or the disease itself is neglected?

It can lead to serious problems (complications).

English: Diagram shows insulin release from th...

Diagram shows insulin release from the Pancreas and how this lowers blood sugar levels.

Why do complications occur?

Diabetes leads to:

  • Increased blood glucose level
  • Increased cholesterol level in the blood
  • Increased levels of some harmful substances
  • These increased levels cause complications.

What could be the complications of diabetes?

  • Heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Eye problems
  • Nerve damages
  • Diabetic foot


Hypoglycemia is the presence of low sugar in the blood. Sometimes the blood sugar falls below the lower limit of 72mg/dl, this condition is known as hypoglycemia i.e. low sugar in the blood.

Symptoms of Hypoglycemia:

  • Dizziness
  • Sweating
  • Irritability
  • Shaky hands
  • Feel hungry
  • Nervous
  • Blurred vision
  • Less concentration

How to manage hypoglycemia?

Take sugar of 3 teaspoons or a glass of juice. If after 15 minutes you still feel the symptoms, take extra sugar. Diabetics need to always carry sugar with them.

Management of diabetes:

Get your blood sugar under control by:

  • Lifestyle modifications like diet and exercise
  • Medications

How to control Diabetes?


  • Avoid deep fried food
  • Avoid deep food
  • Consume food that is rich in fibre
  • Divide your meals in 3-4 parts, take smaller meals at regular intervals.
  • Decide your meal as per the calories advised by your doctor.

Regular exercise

Like brisk-walking, swimming, dancing, cycling, or outdoor sports that can give exercise to your body should be done every day.

  • There is no universal exercise program for all.
  • 30 minutes daily for minimum 5 days a week.
  • Drink fluids before and after exercise.
  • Consult your doctor before starting any regime.
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