Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures to detect Urinary Disorders
Some Laboratory tests are carried out for detecting the problems of the urinary system and to how much extent the damage had occurred. The laboratory tests include:
1. Blood Urea Nitrogen
2. Creatinine Clearance Test
Blood Urea Nitrogen:
This test measures the amount of urea in the blood. When the kidney is diseased or fails, urea accumulates in the blood which leads to unconsciousness and death.
Creatinine Clearance Test:
It measures the ability of the kidney to remove creatinine from the blood. A blood sample is drawn and the amount of creatinine concentration is compared with the excreted in the urine during 24 hour period.
The Clinical Procedures which are carried out for identifying the problems of the urinary system include:
- Magnetic Imaging
X-Rays are many types like CT Scans, Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP), Kidneys, Ureter and Bladder (KUB), Renal Angiography, Retrograde Pyelogram, Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG)
(a) CT Scans:
Transverse X-rays views of the kidney are taken with or without contrast material and are useful in the diagnosis of tumors, cysts, abscesses and hydronephrosis.
(b) Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP):
Contrast material is injected within a vein and travels to the kidney where it is filtered into the urine. These x-rays provide a test of renal function as well as they show cysts, tumors, infections, hydronephrosis and calculi. IVP is also called as excretory urogram.
(c) Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder (KUB):
KUB x-ray record demonstrates the size and location of the kidneys in relation to other organs in the abdomino-pelvic region.
(d) Renal Angiography:
Contrast material is injected into the blood stream and x-rays are taken of the blood vessels of the kidney. This procedure is helpful for the diagnosis of kidney tumors and outline renal vessels in hypertensive patients.
(e) Retrograde Pyelogram:
Contrast material is introduced directly into the bladder and ureters through a cytoscope, and x-rays are taken to determine the presence of stones or obstructions.
( f ) Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG):
The bladder is filled with contrast material, as in a retrograde pyelogram and x-rays are taken of the bladder and urethra as a patient is expelling urine.
Kidney size, tumors, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney and ureteral and bladder obstruction are some of the many conditions that can be diagnosed using sound waves, but no info about the renal function is obtained.
A radioactive substance is injected into the blood stream in small amounts and is taken by the kidneys. These studies indicate study of blood vessels, diagnose obstruction, and determine the separate function of each kidney.
4. Magnetic Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):
The patient lies surrounded by a cylindrical magnetic resonance machine and images are made of pelvic and retro peritoneal regions using magnetic waves.