Urinalysis : Tests to detect Pathological Conditions of Urinary System

What is meant by Urinalysis?

Urinalysis is an examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements which may indicate various pathological conditions.

English: White blood cells seen under a micros...

White blood cells seen under a microscope from a urine sample. 

The following are some of the tests made in urinalysis:

1. Color:

Testing the color of the urine.

2. pH:

To test the chemical nature of the urine. The test indicates to what degree a solution is acid or alkaline.

3. Protein:

Small amounts of proteins like albumin are normally present in the urine but not in sufficient quantity to produce a positive result. This test is done to check the leakage of the albumin.

4. Glucose:

When glucose appears in urine, it indicates diabetes mellitus. Excessive level of sugar in the blood stream leads to “spilling over” of sugar into the urine.

5. Specific Gravity:

It reflects the amount of waste, minerals and solids in the urine.

6. Ketone Bodies:

The presence of ketones in the blood is quiet dangerous as it increases the acidity of the blood which leads to coma and death.

7. Sediment:

Abnormal particles in the urine as a sign of pathological conditions.

8. Pus:

Pyuria gives turbid appearance to urine. Presence of leukocytes causes inflammation in the kidney.

9. Phenylketonuria (PKU):

The substances that accumulate in the urine of infants born with a special congenital problem.

10. Bilirubin:

This pigment substance from hemoglobin breakdown may appear in the urine, darkening it as an indication of liver or gall bladder disease.

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