Procedures that deals with Urinary System Diseases
Some of the procedures are followed to deal with the urinary problems or to treat them when the kidneys fail to function properly.
Visual examination of the urinary bladder by means of a cystoscope. A hollow metal tube is introduced into the urinary metatus and passed through the urethra into the bladder by means of a light source, special lenses and mirrors; the bladder mucosa is examined for tumors, calculi, or inflammation.
Waste material such as urea is separated from the blood stream when the kidneys no longer function. There are two kinds of dialysis.
- Peritoneal dialysis
Hemodialysis: Using an artificial kidney machine that receives waste filled blood from the patients blood stream, filters it and returns the dialysed blood to the patient body.
Peritoneal Dialysis: Using a peritoneal catheter tube, fluid is introduced into the peritoneal cavity. Fluid is removed from the catheter. Procedure is done by a mechanical apparatus or continuously by the patient.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL):
Shock waves are used to crush urinary tract stones into tiny fragments that can then be passed out with urine. After receiving some anesthesia the patient is immersed in a tank of water and shock waves are generated electrically, using a x-ray picture screen (fluoroscopy) the physician can position the patient so that the stone will receive shock waves properly.
Renal Biopsy :
Biopsy of the kidney may be performed at the time of surgery or through the skin.When the latter technique is used, the patient lies in the prone position and following administration of local anesthesia to the overlying skin and muscles of the back, a biopsy needle is inserted with the aid of fluoroscopy or ultrasonography, and tissue is obtained for microscopic examination.
A kidney is transplanted into a patient with renal failure from an identical twin (isograft) or other individual (allograft).
A flexible, tubular instrument is passed through the urethra into the urinary bladder. Catheters are used for drainage of urine to introduce irrigating solutions into the bladder, or to inflate the bladder.