Types of Muscles of the Muscular System and Vocabulary
There are three types of the muscles in the body.
- Straighted Muscles
- Smooth Muscles
- Cardiac Muscles
1. Straighted Muscles: Other names, arrangement and control
Straighted muscles are also known as voluntary muscles or skeletal muscles. These are the muscle fibres that move all the bones of the face and eyes. Through the central and peripheral nervous system, we have conscious control on these muscles.
Straighted muscle fibres have pattern of dark and light bands, or fibrils in their cytoplasm. Fibrous tissue that envelopes and seperates muscles is called fascia. Fascia contains the muscle’s blood, lymph and nerve supply.
2. Smooth Muscles: Other names, arrangement and control
Smooth muscles are also called as involuntary or visceral muscles, These are those muscle fibres that move internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels and secretory ducts leading from the glands.
These muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. They are called as smooth muscles because they have no dark and light fibrils in their cytoplasm. Skeletal muscle fibres’ are arranged in bundles, while smooth muscle forms sheets of fibres as it wraps around tubes and vessels.
3. Cardiac Muscles: Other names, arrangement and control
Cardiac muscle is straighted in appearance but like smooth muscle in its action. Its movement cannot be consciously controlled. The fibres of cardiac muscle are branching fibres and these muscles are found in the heart.
Vocabulary of terms (Meanings) that we come across in the Muscular System
Abduction : Movement away from the midline of the body.
Adduction : Movement toward the midline of the body.
Dorsiflexion : Backward (upward) bending of the foot.
Extension : Straightening of a flexed limb.
Fascia : Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles.
Flexion : Bending
Insertion of a muscle : Connection of the muscle to the bone that moves.
Origin of a muscle : Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone.
Plantar flexion : Bending the sole of the foot downward toward the ground
Pronation : Turning the palm backward
Rotation : Circular movement around a central point.
Skeletal Muscle : Muscle connected to bones, voluntary or straighted muscle.
Smooth Muscle : Skeletal muscle
Supination : Turning the palm forward
Visceral Muscle : Smooth muscle